Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/2307/4523
Title: Hylemetric Techniques for Data and Information Security
Authors: Cozzella, Lorenzo
metadata.dc.contributor.advisor: Schirripa Spagnolo, Giuseppe
Keywords: hylemetric
biometry
watermarking
digital monograpay
Issue Date: 17-Jun-2013
Publisher: Università degli studi Roma Tre
Abstract: The proposed research is based on past years studies on innovation in biometric systems, which has led to verifying how, in all the biometry approach, exists a similar approach, defined in the research Biometry Paradigm, which is based on the identification and utilization of particular characteristics, having the properties to be univocal and measurable. Typical examples are fingerprint, iris, retina, hand geometry, face and so on. Starting from this consideration, we have tried to verify if a similar approach could be applied to valuable objects, such as banknotes, artworks, identification documents and, in general, to all the objects which have the necessity to be verified to fight against their counterfeiting. The research work was based on the identification of some characteristics, which can be measured in a non-destructive way, inside some notable case studies, such as banknotes, passports, drug packages, lithography, with the aim to create a method, starting from the past experiences in the biometric analysis, which allows to verify with a great accuracy objects’ authenticity. The methods developed in this research have been defined as Hylemetric Authentication, from Greek words ὕλη (hyle), for inanimate objects and μετρον (metros) for measurement. The study started from the analysis of the existing solutions adopted to put in secureness banknotes, documents, artworks’ certificates and drug packages. Starting from this analysis, in each case study, has been possible identify a set of different security systems and approach. In particular, it is possible define two categories of security approach:  Overt Authentication/Identification System, visible at human eye and verifiable in a simple manner by the final utilizer.  Covert Authentication/Identification System, not simply visible or visible under particular environmental conditions and/or using particular instrumentations. Typical examples of overt systems are holograms and intaglio printing on banknotes, shifting and changing inks, used on pharmacologic packages. Covert systems are typically ultraviolet inks, infrared patterns and so on, used always on banknotes. Sometimes, mixed systems are also proposed, such as 1D and 2D barcodes, which at first analysis can be considered as overt systems, but the necessity to use dedicated and sometimes also complex decoding systems, allows to catalogue it as mixed system. In fact, its presence is sometimes considered as proof of originality, but in reality the originality can be proven only analysing the content of the barcode, which sometimes results encrypted. Focusing on research case studying, banknotes presents both overt and covert solutions, whereas overt or mixed ones in general characterize drugs packages. Lithography and artworks in general have been authenticated using only paper certificate of authenticity, without any automatic or semi-automatic verification system. In any case, this approach can be categorized as overt, because the presence of a Certificate of Authenticity with signature and stamp on it is generally considered sufficient to be sure on the artwork originality. Starting from this state-of-art, the research has tried to verify the possibility to apply the biometric approach to these case studies, with the aim to enforce the authentication and anti-counterfeiting process with an innovative solution. For making this, the first step is the identification, for each case study, of at least one univocal characteristic, present on the analyzed object at priori (e.g. Banknotes security fibres), or added on it (e.g. white light speckles added on drug packages), which has the requested requirements to be categorized as Hylemetric Characteristic. In particular a characteristic, to be considered as usable in the Hylemetric approach, has to have the following basic properties:  Uniqueness: every objects should be identifiable and distinguishable from all others;  Consistency: feature vector should be verifiable by multiple parties over the lifetime of the object;  Conciseness: feature vector should be short and easily computable;  Robustness: it should be possible to verify the feature vector even if the object has been subjected to harsh treatment;  Resistance to Forgery: it should be very difficult and costly, or impossible for an adversary, to forge a document by coercing a second object to express the same feature vector as the original one. For any of the case study analyzed during the research course, it has been possible to identify proper characteristics which have all these properties. The acquisition of them changes from object to object, has in biometry paradigm, depending on the object physical characteristics, but the verification approach is similar for all the analyzed ones. In banknote case, we have used metallic security fibres as Hylemetric characteristic. They have the physical property to shine in the visible spectrum when illuminated by ultraviolet light at a precise wavelength. We have acquired the fibres distribution, creating a unique identification pattern based on them. This pattern has been encrypted and then coded in a bidimensional barcode, based on DataMatrix ECC 200 Standard. The proposed encryption has been made by means of Elliptic Curve, to reduce dimensions of pattern encrypted version and cope with DataMatrix maximum storage constraint. For artworks in general, we have made some experiments on lithography and then on oil and statue. The proposed approach has to modify the Certificate of Authenticity, introducing both new information on the paper version and a new digital version of it. All the modifications are based on the extraction of an Hylemetric characteristic from the artwork. In Lithography case, the typical stone impression leave a unique grain pattern, acquirable using a digital camera. For oil paints and statue using particular image manipulations and filters is possible from the acquired image obtaining a speckle-like pattern from the object structure. Analyzing the pharmacologic products packaging, we have decided to add on them the Hylemetric characteristic, using the so called White Light Speckle technique. We have used ultraviolet ink sprayed on a package’ particular area. In this way each package has been stamped with a different Speckle Pattern. In any studied cases, independently from the acquired characteristic, has been possible defining a Hylemetric Template, which allows to authenticate the related object. In some cases the defined template has been converted into a 2D Barcode to be directly put on the object (e.g. banknotes, drug packages), or has been codified to be inserted in a Digital Certificate of Authenticity (e.g. artworks). In the case of barcodes, we have used both standard DataMatrix, or a new 2D Barcode based on Computer Generated Holograms, defined HoloBarcode. In some case the barcode has been proposed to be put on the object using infrared ink, to maintain the original object aspect and to increase the system security as well. The usage of infrared ink starting from the necessity to put it on banknotes, plenty of visible and invisible security artefacts. The infrared band is empty on over the 80% of the banknote surface in both sides and it is possible to find the proper area where to put the barcode. Otherwise, the introduction of a non-standard bidirectional barcode, based on CGH, has been proposed in such cases where the object to be analysed can be heavily manipulated and ruined. HoloBarcode has the great advantage to be highly resistant to loss of information (i.e. loss of part of the barcode area) and to offer the possibility to extract information also starting from only a little part of the barcode. However, the storage capacity of these barcodes is very poor, if compared with standard 2D Barcodes with same dimensions. In conclusion, during this research we have analysed the state-of-art of security features applied to valuable objects. Then, starting from a biometric approach, has been proposed an Hylemetric paradigm, which allows to authenticate objects starting from their intrinsic characteristics. We have made tests on different type of objects, such as banknotes, passports, lithography, oil paints, drug packages, obtaining in any case the correct definition of a Hylemetric Procedure, similar in any case, and a Hylemetric Template to be used in verification phase. After that we have also proposed a new bi-dimensional barcode, based on Synthetic Holograms, to be used in particular cases instead of Standard ones to store the Hylemetric Template for offline verification activities.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/2307/4523
Access Rights: info:eu-repo/semantics/openAccess
Appears in Collections:Dipartimento di Scienze
T - Tesi di dottorato

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