Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/2307/5888
Title: Ethnobotanical Survey in Bali (Indonesia) to Conserve Biodiversity and Cultural Value of Food and Nutraceutical Plants
Authors: Sujarwo, Wawan
metadata.dc.contributor.advisor: Caneva, Giulia
Keywords: Bali Ethnobotany
Food plants
Nutraceutical plants quatitative Ethnobotany
Issue Date: 15-Feb-2016
Publisher: Università degli studi Roma Tre
Abstract: In the first chapter, we report the first ethnobotanical study of wild and semi-wild food plants used by the inhabitants of the villages of Bali. Considering the urgent need to avoid the loss of this traditional knowledge, 50 informants from 13 “Bali Aga” villages across four districts were selected for our field investigation. Ethnobotanical data were collected through different interview methods (direct observation, semi-structured interviews, key informant interviews, individual discussions, focus-group discussions, and questionnaires). The 86 recorded species belonging to 41 families and 68 genera, including angiosperms (82) and pteridophytes (4), are categorized as wild (33) and semi-wild (53), of which 63.64% are native to Malesian, Indian, and Indochinese. Wild and semi-wild edible plants play an important role in providing the Balinese with various essential nutrients. Fourteen species (16.28%) are also used medicinally. In recent years, with the growth of the tourist industry, the wild habitats of edible plants have been severely impacted. Traditional knowledge related to wild and semi-wild edible plants is also endangered. Therefore, the management of these resources and the preservation of biodiversity along with indigenous knowledge are of primary importance. In the second chapter, we report the first study to document plants species used as Loloh, reporting the phytochemical components and pharmacological properties of the most cited plants. Documenting the plants used in herbal drinks in Bali by local communities to treat various ailments (providing some information on phytochemistry and pharmacology of the most interesting plants). Loloh are herbal drinks produced and consumed exclusively in Bali (Indonesia) to prevent and treat different ailments. Ethnobotanical data were obtained through semi-structured interviews (individual and group discussions) and questionnaires. Plant specimens were collected, identified and made into herbarium vouchers. A total of 51 plants species (belonging to 32 families) have been documented for their use in the various preparation of Loloh. Different plants and plant parts are used to prepare Loloh to treat heartburn, fever, diarrhea, hypertension, aphthous stomatitis (canker sores), and other minor health problems. These plants are mainly prepared as decoctions, are juiced or simply added to the preparation. The most cited plants (> 30 informants) are Alstonia scholaris (L.) R. Br., Blumea balsamifera (L.) DC., Cinnamomum burmanni Nees ex Bl., and Piper betle L. These plants are well studied with multiple demonstrated pharmacological activities (e.g., antimicrobial, anticancer, antidiabetic). The Balinese communities still preserve a rich ethnobotanical knowledge. Several species are well known for their pharmacological properties, but some [such as Pneumatopteris callosa (Blume) Nakai and Dendrocnide stimulans (L. f.) Chew] are understudied and could be promising candidates for further research. In the third chapter, we have hypothesis on local knowledge of cultivated plants in home gardens has a long tradition in Bali. In order to study this tradition in depth, an ethnobotanical study was conducted in thirteen traditional villages, and data on home gardens was collected through key informant interviews and semi-structured interviews. Thirty-six species of cultivated plants comprising 29 genera and 20 families have been documented, of which 37.50% are native to the Malesian region, 21.43% to the Indian region, and 12.50% to the Indochinese region. 33.33% of all recorded plant species are trees, especially fruit species. The major use categories reported for cultivated plants were as vegetables (46%), medicines (23%), and as edible fruits (20%). However, 22.22% of all recorded plants appear in more than one use category. Cassava [Manihot esculenta Crantz], banana [Musa paradisiaca L.], sweet potato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Poir.], papaya [Carica papaya L.], and ridged gourd [Luffa acutangula (L.) Roxb.] were identified as the main sources of plant vegetables consumed among the local population. Many plants are typical of home gardens throughout the tropics, but species richness in home gardens differed substantially between villages according to the level of preservation of traditional uses. In general, home gardens provide a broad and diverse basis for self-sufficiency, and it is important to promote awareness of traditional uses of cultivated plants. In the fourth chapter, different quantitative indices were proposed to determine the cultural importance of ethnobotanically valuable plants in order to develop a tool for the evaluation of immaterial cultural heritage. These indices were applied to an ethnobotanical survey of food and nutraceutical plants traditionally consumed in Bali, Indonesia. The uses of the plants were grouped into 6 use categories. The Cultural Food Significance Index (CFSI), use value (UV), relative frequency of citation (RFC), relative importance (RI), cultural value (CVs), and informant consensus factor (ICF) were calculated for a list of plants cited by fifty informants in different traditional villages on the island. This evaluation of the cultural importance of plants through different indices produced interesting variations. Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott came highest in the preference ranking for RFC, UV and CVs. Arenga pinnata (Wurmb) Merr. was in first place for CFSI and RI. Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam., Lablab purpureus (L.) Sweet and Cinnamomum burmanni (Nees & T. Ness) Blume were also high in the CFSI, RI, and CVs. The ICF results revealed a well-defined food tradition. The combined use of these indices, as opposed to any single index, makes it possible to quantify the role that a given plant plays within a particular culture. In the fifth chapter, in order to understand possible impacts on traditional ethnobotanical knowledge (TEK) in Bali, we interviewed local people living in 13 traditional villages regarding the number of known plants and their uses. We analyzed socioeconomic factors influencing change of such knowledge at both individual (informant) and community (village) level. We identified a total of 149 food and nutraceutical plants being used in the study area. Neither gender, occupation, income, nor level of formal education had a significant effect on TEK. However, informant’s age and village status were found to play an important role in the retention of TEK at an individual level. At the village level, the use of Internet/smart phones was an important predictor of cultural erosion. Keywords: Bali, ethnobotany, cultivated plants, cultural erosion, food plants, herbal drink, home garden, nutraceutical plants, quantitative ethnobotany, wild and semi-wild plants
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/2307/5888
Access Rights: info:eu-repo/semantics/openAccess
Appears in Collections:Dipartimento di Scienze
T - Tesi di dottorato

Files in This Item:
File Description SizeFormat Existing users please Login
PhD Thesis SUJARWO Wawan BAE XXVIII.pdf17.24 MBAdobe PDF    Request a copy
SFX Query Show full item record Recommend this item

Page view(s)

28
checked on Sep 20, 2020

Google ScholarTM

Check


Items in DSpace are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved, unless otherwise indicated.